I n d o n e s i a Brief


Top ten provinces with degraded forest lands

Current facts

Illegal logging, forest fires and other inappropriate forestry and non-forestry practices have contributed significantly to an estimated 54.6 million ha of degraded forest lands, including Production Forests, and Conservation and Protected Forests and 41.7 million ha of degraded lands outside the forest areas (Ministry of Forestry, 2002). The livelihoods of an estimated 1.5 to 65 million forest dependent people have also been affected by such degradation according to the World Bank (1994) . The responsibility for rehabilitating the 96.3 million hectares of degraded land lies with the Ministry of Forestry.


  Challenges for Indonesia to implement more applicable, cost-effective and socio-culturally acceptable rehabilitation approaches

Changes in forest area

Years Area (Million ha)
1991 143.97
2000 109.57
Source: Ministry of Forestry (2001)

Deforestation Trends (1985-2000)

Period Rate of deforestation
(Million ha per year)
1985 - 1997 1.6
1997 - 2000 3.8
Source: Ministry of Forestry (2001)

Top ten provinces with degraded forest lands */

*/ Cover bush, barren land, mixed agricultural fields and shrubs
Source: Ministry of Forestry (2002)
Ministry of Forestry's initiatives

In 2002, the Ministry initiated a policy under the umbrella of social forestry in the direction of community-based rehabilitation programs. The technical plan was developed under the Five Year Plan on Forest and Land Rehabilitation Program (RHL-5 tahun) and will use catchment areas as the unit of management. The first priority category to be rehabilitated includes 60 watersheds. However due to financial constraints, the program will focus on rehabilitating only 17 catchment areas over the next five years at a total cost of USD 1.6 billion (Ministry of Forestry 2003). The policy complements the program of Allocated Reforestation Fund for Specific Purpose (DAK-DR) that has been implemented since 2001 under the coordination of the District government.

Rehabilitation Projects (1972 - 2002)

Project Project Years Coverage Funding Agency Executing Agency Beneficiaries Project Expenses (USD)
Watershed management and land conservation all over Indonesia
6 36 prioritised catchment area GOI Government and Farmer Group Local People Ranges from 8.5 to 17.2 Million
INPRES Reboisation and Reforestation Projects in all districs of Indonesia
23 60 catchment areas Donor Government Local people Ranges from 8.5 Million to 1.1 Billion
Reforestation and Tropical Forest Management Project Phase I to VI in South Kalimantan
15 7,000 ha imperata grassland Donor Local Government Local Government n.a
Reforestation and land rehabilitation of marginal land in Palu, Central Sulawesi
2 40 ha
Semi arid
barren land
Corporate Association Corporate Association and University Local communities, goverment, agencies, and youth organization 75,063
Generating Community Income through Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands
1 One village in West Kalimantan Donor NGO Local NGO and communities 45,000
Rehabilitation ex-concession areas in North Sumatra
9 10,950 GOI State Company Local communities, company, local goverment 1.7 Million
Participate reboisation in Sanggau District, West Kalimantan
9 2,400 ha covering 59 kampungs GOI and NGO International project continued by local NGO Farmers who participatively planted trees on provate lands 504
GOI: Government of Indonesia


More than a hundred projects dealing with forest rehabilitation on forestry, mining and catchment areas dating from the mid 1960s have been identified so far. Target project areas range from 10 to almost 500 thousand ha with project duration ranging from 1 to 35 years. Projects have been mostly dependent on state and donor funding, and focused mainly on technical aspects. Institutional arrangements for effective implementation of the programs on the ground were often inadequately developed and resulted in little adoption of techniques by local people in the targeted areas. There have been some successful projects mainly characterised by active involvement of local people. There is need to identify the most applicable and socio-culturally acceptable approaches for ensuring sustainability. Evaluation of the performance and impacts of the range of past projects can provide valuable lessons for identifying the most promising approaches and incentives.
Copyright © CIFOR 2003. This project ended September 2007. This website was last updated 1 March 2010.
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