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Politik ekonomi desentralisasi pengusahaan hutan
Studi kasus IPPK di Kabupaten Berau, Kalimantan TimurBogor Agricultural University Bogor, Indonesia
During the New Order era of centralized governance, forest management andexploitation were mostly in the hands of large scale companies, which created hugeconglomerates closely related to the ruling power and its cronies. Forestry linkedpolicies ignored the interests of local communities and local businesses, whichcaused many conflicts, forest degradations and damages as well as increased poverty.In international circles, decentralization and regional autonomy were seen as the bestway to achieve a better use of the forest, to the benefit of both local communities andforest conservation. Under the new regional autonomy, the district of Berau released apolicy allowing the local communities and local businesses to benefit from theremaining forest resources, the so-called IPPK (Timber Extraction and UtilizationPermits). These permits were mostly in the form of small-scale logging concessions of100 hectare. Intensive field work was carried out to assess the implementation of theIPPK system in the district of Berau. The study showed that so far IPPKs have had anoverall negative impact, creating more conflicts and higher rates of forest damage. TheIPPK system helped to boost illegal logging and over cutting even in protected forests.Meanwhile, local communities proved unable to secure access over forest resources. Interms of benefit allocation, the local communities got the smallest part of the cake.The biggest parts were trusted by third parties such as free riders and rent seekers,including government officials and village elites. The IPPK policy proved detrimental togovernment revenue, even though it was meant to boost district income (PendapatanAsli Daerah-PAD) and communities’ well being. Direct cash distribution to thecommunities created jealousy among villagers and weakened the social links amongthe community. Overall, it stimulated an already strong consumptive behavior andjeopardized the last remaining forest resources.