Kodagu district produces 2% of the worlds coffee, in complex, multistoried agroforestry systems. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the
Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of humanelephant conflicts (HEC). Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with
limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates. Our study, initiated in May 2007, shows that the intensity of HEC has increased over the last 10 years, exhibiting new seasonal patterns. Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a wicked problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.
Topic: elephants,coffee,conflict,agroforestry systems,mitigation
Publication Year: 2011
Source: Environmental Management 47(5): 789-801