CIFOR invites you to attend its presentations at the XVI Biennial IASC Conference ‘Practicing the commons: self-governance, cooperation, and institutional change’.

Organized by the International Association for the Study of the Commons (IASC), this conference aims to consolidate and expand the study of the commons, both in academia and in the field.

CIFOR scientists will share research about new, inspiring forms of collective action in the fields of land tenure, customary rights, forest governance, forest restoration and zero-deforestation commitments.

Explore this site to find out more about the involvement of CIFOR and partners in this global event.


Agenda

11 July, 2017

11:00-12:30

UCK-Domplein, Studio 0.17 (ground floor)

Challenges and outcomes of collective tenure reforms for security and livelihoods

The papers on this panel will present four aspects of research findings on tenure reforms. The first paper, presented by Anne Larson, will provide an introduction to the panel, presenting a broad perspective based on multiple reforms around the developing world. It discusses the many challenges faced in the process of reform – before, during and after rights recognition – and suggests ways forward. The second, presented by Baruani Mshale, examines whether and how different forest tenure regimes result in improved forest tenure security for forest dependent communities, using a comparative analysis of cases from Indonesia, Nepal and Uganda. The sites include villages with perceived threats to security under a variety of types and stages of recognition. The third paper, presented by Mani Ram Banjade, examines the livelihood impacts of reforms across the 55 study villages, based on the intra-household questionnaires, focus groups and key informant interviews. In particular, the paper assesses the key livelihoods initiatives taken as well as incomes and other benefits harnessed from land and forest management after the reforms. And the final paper, presented by Iliana Monterroso, presents comparative results on the process and outcomes of reforms from a gender perspective.

Further reading:

CIFOR Presenters:
Anne Larson
How (not) to title indigenous and community lands: A story
View presentation
This presentation serves as an introduction to the papers on key research results from a comparative study of collective tenure reforms in six countries (Indonesia, Nepal, Peru, Colombia, Uganda and DRC). The research, conducted by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) in 2014-2016, focuses on tenure security, obstacles to reforms and gendered outcomes of reforms. This presentation, which tells a story about challenges to reforms, is based on findings from this project, as well as a review of literature across multiple countries (especially Brazil and China) and a decade of research and engagement on this topic.
Iliana Monterroso
Analyzing social differentiation within collective tenure regimes: Forest tenure reforms and women’s rights
View presentation
This paper, co-authored by Esther Mwangi, Anne Larson, Mani Ram Banjade, Tuti Herawati Nining Liswanti and Baruani Mshale, presents comparative results on the process and outcomes of reforms from a gender perspective.
Mani Ram Banjade
Impact of land and forest tenure reform implementation on livelihoods of forest-dependent communities: Comparative analysis across various tenure regimes
This paper co-authored by Iliana Monterroso, Baruani Mshale, Tuti Herawati, Nining Liswanti, Esther Mwangi and Anne Larson, examines the livelihood impacts of reforms across the 55 study villages, based on the intra-household questionnaires, focus groups and key informant interviews. In particular, the paper assesses the key livelihoods initiatives taken as well as incomes and other benefits harnessed from land and forest management after the reforms.
Baruani Mshale
Impacts of forest tenure reforms on tenure security for forest dependent communities: A cross-country comparative study
View presentation
This paper, co-authored by Mani Ram Banjade, Tuti Herawati, Anne Larson, Nining Liswanti, Iliana Monterroso and Esther Mwangi, examines whether and how different forest tenure regimes result in improved forest tenure security for forest dependent communities, using a comparative analysis of cases from Indonesia, Nepal and Uganda. The sites include villages with perceived threats to security under a variety of types and stages of recognition.

14:00-15:30

UCK-Domplein, Room 1.14 (first floor)

The role of external actors in multi-level governance of the commons

Forest Tenure Reform implementation involves diverse actors with multiple roles and interests, including government officials. Few studies have attempted to systematically document the conditions facing government agency implementers in multiple settings in their efforts to implement tenure reform. This study, co-authored by Esther Mwangi, Anne Larson, lliana Monterosso, Baruani Mshale, Nining Liswanti and Mani Ram Banjade, generates insights into the underlying processes and factors that influence tenure reform implementation. In particular it identifies the factors that enhance or constrain reform implementation from the perspective of over 100 individual implementers in government agencies at national and sub-national levels in four countries: Indonesia, Nepal, Peru and Uganda.

CIFOR Presenter:
Tuti Herawati Hadis
Forest tenure reform implementation: Perspectives from national and sub-national government officials in multiple settings
View presentation

16:00-18:00

Janskerk

Securing rights on land and resources through collective action and cooperation

Resources across the globe are increasingly under pressure, due to economic priorities, political challenges and global processes such as climate change. Collective action and cooperation, such as through global and national indigenous and grassroots movements, have led to numerous efforts to secure rights and access to land and natural resources for local citizens. Changes that support both social justice and ecological sustainability require efforts on multiple fronts. This panel, which begins with a keynote address by Dr. Saskia Sassen, will discuss multiple challenges, in law, the economics of land grabs, and in local livelihoods. It includes a look at differentiated challenges through a gendered approach.

Further reading:

CIFOR Chair:
Anne Larson

12 July, 2017

14:00-15:30

Academiegebouw, Kanunnikenzaal (first floor)

Zero-deforestation commitments and the dynamics of regime complexity

This panel offers a critical review of recent zero-deforestation commitment trends and their substantive content, and implementation mechanisms. By doing so, it highlights potential social and environmental trade-offs and points of intersection and conflict with established regime complexes. Drawing on experiences in the Brazilian soy and beef sectors, the Indonesia palm oil sector, and the Central African timber sector, this panel goes on to explore how the inter-regulatory dynamics in different commodity chains evolve to resolve the land use management, smallholder upgrading, and tenurial challenges that the proliferation of zero-deforestation commitments has produced. The research presented in the panel will offer new empirical insights into the dynamics and impacts of regime complexity and proposes pathways to harmonizing divergent regulatory approaches and interests.

CIFOR Presenters:
George Schoneveld
Opportunities and risks of corporate zero-deforestation commitments
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Paolo Cerutti
Inclusiveness, equity and sustainability: New ideas needed for informal timber operators in Sub-Saharan Africa
View presentation
Two major governance regimes have been applied over the past decade to the management of production forests in the Congo basin. One, older, is the classic state-driven approach, with forest management rules and regulations adopted by the state and enforced by the relevant ministries. Another, more recent, is the market-driven approach, where state rules and regulations still apply, but are coupled with more stringent criteria regularly monitored by third-party auditors. Although the two governance regimes present many differences in their theoretical background and in the way they are actually implemented on the ground, one important similarity, especially related to the sustainable management of forests, is that they both apply almost exclusively to the large-scale, export-oriented, timber concessionary regime of colonial origin. Because of such focus, the forest sector in the countries of the Congo basin has always been identified with the operations of large-scale logging concessions, or forest management units (FMUs). In recent years, however, also because of improved economic conditions, more and more evidence has become available that indicates that this historical interpretation of the forest sector needs to be reframed. In fact, what is generally identified as the small-scale, informal forest sector, has been producing larger and larger volumes since the beginning of the 2000s, engaging thousands of people and positively impacting many rural and urban economies. This is not only, of course, a problem of how to define the forest sector. It is also, and foremost, a question of rethinking the two major governance regimes, which seem unable – because of their historical focus on FMUs – not only to address the current needs of smallholders and local producers and traders, but also to drive and support them through processes aimed at their better integration in a sustainable and inclusive national economy. In fact, both current regimes tend to alienate, criminalize or stigmatize smallholders and local timber operators. The latter, in turn, find it close to impossible to join national processes or discussions aimed at finding solutions for the better management of the forest. This happens not only because smallholders are scattered across the national territory and find it very difficult to organise and speak with a common voice, but also because resistance to their engagement often occurs from within the government, which has many vested interests in maintaining a status quo whereby criminalized smallholders and operators are easy targets for indelicate state officials regularly asking for bribes all along the production value chain. Through the assessment of recently collected evidence from several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the paper presented in this session highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the two major governance regimes vis-à-vis the informal, small-scale forest sector, and discusses possible ways forward for its better inclusion in sustainable development pathways.
Pablo Pacheco
The politics and practice of zero-deforestation and sustainability commitments in palm oil in Indonesia
View presentation
14 July 2017

09:00-10:30

Academiegebouw, Zaal 1636 (ground floor)

Practitioners Lab: Defending land rights: Exploring the solutions to current issues

Practitioners Lab on identifying threats to land rights and highlighting solutions.  The lab will identify cases where there have been advances in protecting community land rights, what has contributed to this change, with an overview of the governance and support systems necessary for the realization of community land rights, and what tactics were used to influence governments. The discussion session will focus on ways in which others can add value and build on these processes for change, and what can be done to support improved governance recognition of community land rights and their laws.

Further reading:

CIFOR Presenter:
Anne Larson
Comparative research on sources of tenure insecurity in Peru, Indonesia, and Uganda

09:00-10:30

Academiegebouw, Senaatszaal (first floor)

Water governance

Presentation of a paper co-authored by Mani Ram Banjade, Baruani Mshale, Tuti Herawati, Nining Liswanti and Steven Lawry.

CIFOR Presenter:
Esther Nyambura Mwangi
Mangrove governance and tenure: Insights for policy and practice from selected sites in Indonesia, Tanzania and a global review
View presentation

11:00-12:30

Academiegebouw, Maskeradezaal (first floor)

Historical injustices, development failures, and long-term dynamics of land and tree tenure

This panel presents research from different parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya and Democratic Republic of Congo) exploring the long-term dynamics of securing access to land and trees under complex socio-political systems at the interface of customary and statutory law.

CIFOR Presenter:
D. Andrew Wardell
80 years seeking compensation for land appropriation associated with the establishment of the Yangambi Floristic Reserve in 1937, Tshopo Province, Democratic Republic of Congo
View presentation

14:00-15:30

Academiegebouw, Kanunnikenzaal (first floor)

Governing and restoring forests

To promote forest landscape restoration (FLR), national governments have embarked on far-reaching policy reforms to reclassify lands targeted for restoration, to designate legitimate forest stewards and to define acceptable land use practices, responsibilities and benefits. Policy reform to influence forest management behavior can face complex challenges but policy makers can learn from past experience to better design forest restoration initiatives.  The paper presented in this session  attempts to distill general lessons by examining distinct national reform process and their local manifestations in diverse socio-political and environmental contexts. 

CIFOR Presenter:
Peter Cronkleton
Comparing governance reforms to restore the forest commons in Nepal, China and Ethiopia

14:00-15:30

Academiegebouw, Zaal 1636 (ground floor)

Land tenure and customary rights

The past decade has seen a wave of reforms in the forestry sectors in Africa, Asia and Latin America that devolve rights and authority from centralized forestry agencies to subnational governments or even to local communities. Many of these reforms have provided greater legal recognition of customary and local authorities, indigenous territorial rights, and women’s rights. But the implementation of these reforms has been uneven and has led to mixed results, in some cases even increasing the tenure insecurity of local communities. This session compares implementation and outcomes of reforms in countries including Indonesia, Uganda and Peru

CIFOR Presenter:
Nining Liswanti
Greater than the sum of its parts? Lessons from a collaborative, multi-actor, scenario-based approach for securing local tenure rights
View presentation

14:00-15:30

UCK-Domplein, Marnixzaal (first floor)

Forest landscape restoration and the commons: Drawing global lessons from local complexity

Exclosures are used as a means of rehabilitating degraded communal lands in Ethiopia. Communities get onsite and offsite products and services such as fodder, honey, fuel wood, water for irrigation to improve their livelihoods. There are, however, a number of drawbacks that prevent wider adoption of the approach, including poor regeneration and slow rate of rehabilitation across agro-ecologies, much lower economic gains from rehabilitated lands, unclear responsibility sharing mechanisms, lack of clarity on ownership rights, joint objective setting, benefit sharing mechanisms and equity in benefit sharing. Improvements are needed to facilitate its wider use and to maximize the ecosystem services. The study presented in this session evaluated the ecological and socioeconomic impacts of nine exclosure sites from three agroecological zones identified as successful. Through focus group discussions, key informant interviews and a formal survey of 324 randomly selected farmers, researchers identified institutional, legal, and socioeconomic factors that affect the outcomes of exclosures. In this session, analysis results are presented, bringing insights on factors affecting adoption and successful implementation, including: community ownership through participation in planning and management, design of appropriate legal frameworks, tenure and use rights, benefit sharing, and monitoring. Discussion follows on the relevance of the findings to potential expansion of the use of exclosures, with attention to what measures could maximize opportunity and avoid damaging externalities.

CIFOR Presenter:
Emiru Birhane Hizikias
Exclosures as a communal forest land rehabilitation model in Ethiopia: Lessons from the Tigray Region

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