The Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) envisions a more equitable world where forestry and landscapes enhance the environment and well-being for all. CIFOR is a non-profit, scientific institution that conducts research on the most pressing challenges of forest and landscape management around the world. Using a global, multidisciplinary approach, we aim to improve human well-being, protect the environment, and increase equity. To do so, we conduct innovative research, develop partners’ capacity, and actively engage in dialogue with all stakeholders to inform policies and practices that affect forests and people. CIFOR is a CGIAR Research Center, and leads the CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees and Agroforestry (FTA). Our headquarters are in Bogor, Indonesia, with offices in Nairobi, Kenya, Yaoundé, Cameroon, and Lima, Peru.
Consultant for Research on Fiscal Incentive Mechanisms (FIMs)
CIFOR is undertaking a research project entitled, “From Climate Research to Action under Multilevel
Governance (MLG): Building Knowledge and Capacity at Landscape Scale”. We are looking for a consultant to contribute to our research on the multilevel governance dynamics of fiscal incentive mechanism (FIMs) that try to incentivize behavior supporting Green Economy outcomes. The Green Economy agenda is increasingly important in developing countries. Fiscal incentive mechanisms (FIM) are often seen as useful tools to change and sustain behaviors, to attain environmental goals without neglecting economic development goals. It can also be the vehicle for benefit sharing under schemes such as REDD+, which rewards achievements in reducing emissions from land use changes.
Most FIMs follow a top-down approach: incentives are provided by institutions at the national/international levels, for those at the subnational/local levels. Between the source and the target of the incentive, multiple levels of stakeholders are involved. Each has varying interests that could influence the sustainability and effectiveness of the incentives in achieving its goals. For example, national incentives targeting forest communities in a highly decentralized country may not be sustainable if it does not address the interests of local governments.
Under the green economy framework, the “economic” interests determine the sustainability of FIMs, and are usually expressed in terms of income and employment. These could be the indirect distributional impacts of environmental FIMs. For example, incentives for increasing forest cover may lead to a modest labor switch from forest-extraction to forest regeneration (e.g., producing seedlings, tree-planting labor). These incentives could have a stronger effect in generating employment in districts with medium levels of forest degradation compared to those with very high or very low level.
We ask two sets of research questions. The first set involves the distribution processes underlying the FIM: How are fiscal incentives distributed? How are stakeholders in multiple levels involved in its distribution? How do they perceive the distribution of FIMs? We will rely on literature review and key informant discussions to answer these questions. The second set is on the impact of these mechanisms at multiple levels, if these impacts are present: What are the behavioral changes that can be attributed to the FIMs? What are the indirect economic impacts of the FIM, in terms of labor and employment changes? How are these indirect impacts distributed? We will use two approaches to answer these questions: a perception survey of stakeholders at multiple levels, and economic modeling to explore distributional impacts of various FIM scenarios.
Objectives of the Assignment
• Comparative studies of existing regional or jurisdictional fiscal incentive mechanisms in Vietnam and Indonesia.
• Comparative studies of multilevel/multisectoral governance dynamics and land use decisions in Vietnam and Indonesia.
Duties and responsibilities
• Identifying 3 fiscal incentive mechanisms for the forestry sector (FIM) and 2 from other sectors to be studied in Vietnam, that are disbursed by national governments and aimed at incentivizing behavioral changes on land use planning and forest protection and development.
3 possible FIMs the consultant should review are:
– Annual stage budget allocation for forestry sector
– ODA/loans/grants for forestry sector
– PFES program.
• Conduct a review on the following aspects:
– How are those incentives transferred across levels (contrasting between what should occur and what actually occurs by comparing what stated in legal document and what is happening in practice)?
– What factors influence the effectiveness of the FIM being studied to achieve the desired behavioral changes?
– How does this mechanism work on the ground, and what kinds of incentives does it ACTUALLY signal to beneficiaries and all stakeholders ‘touched’ by this mechanism, compared to the plans?
– What are the pros and cons of these FIMs in achieving its original objectives?
– What are the factors driving possible changes in economic behavior (policy, incentives, and markets)?
– What are recommendations for better implementation of these FIMs?
• Understanding and exploring stakeholders’ feedbacks on FIMs
The analysis on what is in legal framework versus what is happening on the ground, and practical recommendations, could greatly benefit from stakeholders involved in these FIMs. Therefore, consultant can consult with relevant stakeholders on those issues through different channels (e.g. a small group meeting at CIFOR or consultant office, during which stakeholders can comment on the report; conducting interviews with relevant people and integrating their views on the final report). CIFOR and consultant will discuss to reach an agreement on how to engage stakeholders in this process.
Education, knowledge and experience
• A minimum of Bachelor in Forestry, Sustainable Forest Management or related discipline,
• A minimum of 10 years of working experiences in Vietnam forestry sector,
• Extensive experience in managing large scale forestry projects funded by different entitles including donors, government agencies, and ODA,
• Fluent in both English and Vietnamese.
Terms and Conditions
• This is a national consultancy position and open for Vietnamese only. CIFOR offers competitive remuneration commensurate with skills and experience,
• This is a product-based appointment for the period of 12 weeks,
• Work location will be at Hanoi, Vietnam.
Application processThe application deadline is 11 Dec-2015
We will acknowledge all applications, but will contact only short-listed candidates.