List of Publications - ACM Programme
 
 
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DARI DESA KE DESA: Dinamika Gender dan Pengelolaan Kekayaan Alam

Editor Indriatmoko, Y.; Yuliani, E. L.; Tarigan, Y.; Gaban, F.; Maulana, F.; Munggoro, D. W.; Lopulalan, D.; and Adnan, H. , all at CIFOR, Indonesia

Masih ingat acara Dari Desa ke Desanya TVRI yang dibawakan oleh Sambas Mangundikarta pada tahun 1980-an? Nah buku ini ada kemiripannya ketika menceritakan episode-episode masyarakat pedesaan dari banyak tempat di Indonesia. Narasinya berasal dari berbagai pelosok negeri ini, mulai Jambi di Sumatera sampai Bantimurung di Sulawesi. Bedanya, jika acara TVRI itu menyajikan sebuah keharmonisan, untuk tidak menyebutnya keberhasilan ‘pembangunan’ di pelosok pedesaan, justru kumpulan tulisan ini menggambarkan sebaliknya: betapa pembangunan belum berbuah kesejahteraan, bahkan tak jarang pembangunan malah makin memiskinkan masyarakat. Betapa tidak, demi pembangunan, sumberdaya alam tak henti-hentinya dihabisi, mulai dari kegiatan pertambangan, proyek transmigrasi, penebangan hutan, dan berbagai kegiatan eksploitasi besar-besaran terhadap sumberdaya alam. Tidak perlu diceritakan lagi bagaimana dampak dari eksploitasi ini terhadap bencanabencana alam yang terjadi silih berganti di negeri ini.

Ironisnya, justru perempuan (dan anak-anak) adalah korban utama dari kerusakan lingkungan. Padahal berbagai studi memperlihatkan bahwa perempuan juga memiliki peran besar dalam pengelolaan sumberdaya alam. Kalau kita menengok hasil kajian yang dilakukan Neuman dan Hirsch (2000)1, nampak bahwa di seluruh dunia, perempuan memanen dan mengolah hasil hutan bukan kayu untuk dijual. Bagi perempuan miskin Maranhao, Brazil, menyadap inti palem babacu menjadi sumber pendapatan terpenting mereka. Kegiatan ini melibatkan lebih dari 300.000 keluarga. Para perempuan di Botswana, India, Malaysia dan banyak negara lain, menganyam keranjang, tikar dan piring dari produk hutan. Para perempuan di hutan-hutan tropis juga mengumpulkan atau mengolah bijibijian dan buah-buahan liar, tumbuhan obat dan jantung palem.

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KEHUTANAN MULTIPIHAK Langkah Menuju Perubahan

Editor by Elizabeth Linda Yuliani, Djuhendi Tadjudin, Yayan Indriatmoko, Dani W Munggoro, Farid Gaban, Firkan Maulana, all at CIFOR, Indonesia

Buku ini dimaksudkan untuk membantu staf proyek dan para fasilitator lapangan dalam mendampingi masyarakat dan lembaga lokal berkaitan dengan pengelolaan hutan. Buku ini menyarikan pengalaman tim peneliti CIFOR dan pendampingpendamping masyarakat serta staf lainnya dari tiga LSM mitranya1 di Indonesia, selanjutnya disebut tim.

Tim tersebut melaksanakan penelitian aksi partisipatif tentang suatu pendekatan yang disebut adaptive collaborative management (ACM). Apabila pendekatan ini diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia, kita dapat menggunakan istilah “pengelola an bersama secara adaptif” (PBA). Walaupun demikian, buku ini menggunakan istilah dalam bahasa Inggris untuk menghindari kerancuan, mengingat berbagai istilah, singkatan, ataupun akronim yang berkenaan dengan pengelolaan hutan banyak bermunculan dewasa ini di Indonesia. Meskipun begitu, dalam merujuk pada pendekatan ini, pembaca tentu memiliki kebebasan dalam memilih penggunaan bahasa yang dipandangnya tepat untuk konteks kegiatannya. Proses penelitian berlangsung dari tahun 2000 sampai 2002 dan dilaksanakan di dua lokasi di Indonesia, yaitu di Propinsi Jambi di Sumatera dan Propinsi Kalimantan Timur.

Penelitian serupa dilaksanakan juga di Bolivia, Brasilia, Filipina, Gana, Kamerun, Kirgistan, Madagaskar, Malawi, Nepal, dan Zimbabwe. Sama seperti penelitian di Filipina dan Nepal, Bank Pembangunan Asia (ADB) membiayai penelitian yang dilaksanakan di Indonesia.

Buku ini dimaksudkan untuk berbagi pengalaman dan temuan-temuan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ACM di Indonesia.

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BELAJAR BERADAPTASI Bersama-sama Mengelola Hutan di Indonesia

By Trikurnianti Kusumanto, Elizabeth Linda Yuliani, Phil Macoun, Yayan Indriatmoko and Hasantoha Adnan, all at CIFOR, Indonesia

Buku ini dimaksudkan untuk membantu staf proyek dan para fasilitator lapangan dalam mendampingi masyarakat dan lembaga lokal berkaitan dengan pengelolaan hutan. Buku ini menyarikan pengalaman tim peneliti CIFOR dan pendampingpendamping masyarakat serta staf lainnya dari tiga LSM mitranya1 di Indonesia, selanjutnya disebut tim.

Tim tersebut melaksanakan penelitian aksi partisipatif tentang suatu pendekatan yang disebut adaptive collaborative management (ACM). Apabila pendekatan ini diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Indonesia, kita dapat menggunakan istilah “pengelola an bersama secara adaptif” (PBA). Walaupun demikian, buku ini menggunakan istilah dalam bahasa Inggris untuk menghindari kerancuan, mengingat berbagai istilah, singkatan, ataupun akronim yang berkenaan dengan pengelolaan hutan banyak bermunculan dewasa ini di Indonesia. Meskipun begitu, dalam merujuk pada pendekatan ini, pembaca tentu memiliki kebebasan dalam memilih penggunaan bahasa yang dipandangnya tepat untuk konteks kegiatannya. Proses penelitian berlangsung dari tahun 2000 sampai 2002 dan dilaksanakan di dua lokasi di Indonesia, yaitu di Propinsi Jambi di Sumatera dan Propinsi Kalimantan Timur.

Penelitian serupa dilaksanakan juga di Bolivia, Brasilia, Filipina, Gana, Kamerun, Kirgistan, Madagaskar, Malawi, Nepal, dan Zimbabwe. Sama seperti penelitian di Filipina dan Nepal, Bank Pembangunan Asia (ADB) membiayai penelitian yang dilaksanakan di Indonesia.

Buku ini dimaksudkan untuk berbagi pengalaman dan temuan-temuan yang diperoleh dari penelitian ACM di Indonesia.

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LEARNING TO ADAPT: Managing Forests Together in Indonesia

By Trikurnianti Kusumanto, Elizabeth Linda Yuliani, Phil Macoun, Yayan Indriatmoko and Hasantoha Adnan, all at CIFOR, Indonesia

This book aims to support fi eld-based facilitators and project staff who assist local communities and other groups in managing the forest. It draws on the experience of a team of researchers from CIFOR who worked together with community facilitators from three Indonesian partner non-governmental organisations (NGOs)1.

The team conducted its research on an approach that is called adaptive collaborative management (ACM). The research process took place from 2000 to 2002 and was carried out in two Indonesian sites: Jambi province in central Sumatra and East Kalimantan province.

Similar research was conducted in Bolivia, Brazil, Cameroon, Ghana, Kyrgyzstan, Madagascar, Malawi, Nepal, the Philippines, and Zimbabwe. As in the case of Nepal and the Philippines, the Asian Development Bank funded the Indonesian research. This book shares the team’s experience and the fi ndings of their research.

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The Complex Forest Communities, Uncertainty, and Adaptive Collaborative Management

By Carol J. Pierce Colfer, CIFOR, Indonesia

The Complex Forest systematically examines the theory, processes, and early outcomes of a research and management approach called adaptive collaborative management (ACM). An alternative to positivist approaches to development and conservation that assume predictability in forest management, ACM acknowledges the complexity and unpredictability inherent in any forest community and the importance of developing solutions together with the forest peoples whose lives will be most affected by the outcomes.

Building on earlier work that established the importance of flexible, collaborative approaches to sustainable forest management, The Complex Forest describes the work of ACM practitioners facing a broad range of challenges in diverse settings and attempts to identify the conditions under which ACM is most effective. Case studies of ACM in 33 forest sites in 11 countries together with Colfer’s systematic comparison of results at each site indicate that human and institutional capabilities have been strengthened. In Zimbabwe, for example, the number of women involved in decisionmaking soared. In Nepal, community members detected and sanctioned dishonest community elites. In Cameroon and Bolivia, learning programs resulted in better conflict management. These are early results, but a wide range of recent research supports Colfer’s belief that these new capabilities will eventually contribute to higher incomes and to sustainable improvements in the health of forests and forest peoples.

The Complex Forest reinforces calls for change in the way we plan conservation and development programs, away from command-and-control approaches, toward ones that require bureaucratic flexibility and responsiveness, as well as greater local participation in setting priorities and problem solving.


 


The Equitable Forest Diversity and Community in Sustainable Resource Management

Editor by Carol J. Pierce Colfer, CIFOR, Indonesia

While there continues to be refinement in defining and assessing sustainable management, there remains the urgent need for policies that create the conditions that support sustainability and can halt or slow destructive practices already underway. Carol Colfer and her contributors maintain that standardized solutions to forest problems from afar have failed to address both human and environmental needs. Such approaches, they argue, often neglect the knowledge that local stakeholders have accumulated over generations as forest managers and do not address issues involving the diversity and well-being of groups within communities. The contributors note that these problems persist despite clear evidence that equity and social relationships, including gender roles, are important factors in the ways that communities adapt to change and manage forest resources overall.

The Equitable Forest offers an alternative to traditional, externally organized strategies for forest management. Termed adaptive collaborative management (ACM), the approach tries to better acknowledge the diversity, complexity, and unpredictability of human and natural systems. ACM works to strengthen local institutions and use the knowledge and capacity of groups in local communities to enhance the health and well-being of both forests and the people who live in and around them.

The Equitable Forest provides a detailed explanation of the descriptive, analytical, and methodological tools of ACM, along with accounts of early stages of its implementation in tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Although the contributors make it clear that it is too soon to evaluate the efficacy of ACM, their work is supported by evidence that rural communities do make important contributions when involved in formal forest management; that management strategies are most effective when flexible and tailored to local contexts; and that efforts by outside governmental and nongovernmental organizations to support local management are feasible from the policymaking perspective, and desirable for their impact on human, economic, and environmental well-being.

A copublication with the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR).


 


Politics of Decentralization: The Forests, Power and People

Edited by Carol J. Pierce Colfer and Doris Capistrano, both at CIFOR, Indonesia
Part of the Earthscan Forestry Library

Examines the huge, global and local impacts of decentralization on forests, biodiversity, conservation and the livelihoods of people

In-depth case studies covering Europe/UK, North and South America, Asia, Australia and Africaca

Research supported by the major international forestry and conservation organizations including CIFOR, IUCN, WWF, UNFF, ITTO, FAO, USFS, World Bank and ProForest

Decentralization is sweeping the world and having dramatic and far-reaching impacts on resource management and livelihoods, particularly in forestry. This book is the most up-to-date examination of the themes, experiences and lessons learned from decentralization worldwide. Drawing on research and support from all of the major international forestry and conservation organizations, the book provides a balanced account that covers the impact of decentralization on resource management worldwide, and provides comparative global insights with wide implications for policy, management, conservation and resource use and planning.


 


Management tools for using and preserving natural resources: Criteria and Indicators For Multiple Use of Forests in Andean Patagonia of Argentina

by Carabelli F. A.*, M. M. Jaramillo, D. Szulkin-Dolhatz & M. Gómez (Patagonian Andes Forest Research and Extension Center (CIEFAP), Patagonia, Argentina)

Abstract

Practical application of a set of criteria, indicators and verifiers (C, I & V ) is presented. They are based on those suggested by the International Center of Forest Research (CIFOR) and have been specifically developed for a variety of uses in the Andean Patagonian forest region in Argentina. Considered uses are timber extraction, tourist and recreational use, cattle-breeding and agroforestry. These C, I & V were exhaustively discussed in an Interinstitutional Workshop where technicians of every related national and provincial institutions participated. During this meeting many of these C, I & V were agreed and improved while others must be greatly enhanced. With most of those C, I & V already accepted a Technical Normative was prepared, being the current internal official regulation employed by the local Forest Service to assess plans for multiple use of forests. All plans for multiple use of forest resources already presented by private professionals to the Forest Service of Chubut for evaluation and authorization were analyzed to get a first approach of the plausibility of this Normative.

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Biological Diversity: Balancing Interests Through Adaptive Collaborative Management

Edited by Louise E. Buck, CharlesC. Geisler, John Schelhas, Eva Wollenberg

We live in a world of wide pendulum swings regarding management policies for protected areas, particularly as they affect the involvement of local people in management. Such swings can be polarizing and halt on-the-ground progress. There is a need to find ways to protect biodiversity while creating common ground and building management capacity through shared experiences. Diverse groups need to cooperate to manage forests in ways that are flexible and can incorporate feedback.

Biological Diversity: Balancing Interests Through Adaptive Collaborative Management addresses the problem of how to balance local, national, and global interests in preserving the earth's biological diversity with competing interests in the use and exploitation of these natural resources. This innovative book examines the potential of adaptive collaborative management (ACM) in reconciling a protected area's competing demands for biodiversity conservation, local livelihood support, and broader-based regional development. It clarifies ACM's emerging characteristics and assesses its suitability for a variety of protected area situations.

Features :

  • Presents a better understanding of an emerging new management paradigm for balancing interests in biodiversity conservation and livelihood sustainability
  • Provides interdisciplinary analysis and strategies for success involving social and biological scientists, natural resource practitioners, policy makers, and citizens
  • Includes cases from around the world that illustrate how effective conservation programs can be developed though the use of adaptive management and social learning



Social Learning in Community Forests

Editors: Eva Wollenberg, David Edmunds, Louise Buck, Jeff Fox, Sonja Brodt

How can different interest groups engage together in learning processes that enable them to better manage community forests? In this volume, practitioners from eight countries document their experience with the aim of identifying how to characterize social learning, as well as how to improve upon current practice. Analysis of current approaches to facilitation and circumstances or platforms of learning indicate the need for more attention to the different avenues and styles of learning and the potential benefits of using multiple avenues. Learning styles and approaches need to be responsive to stakeholders' preference, culture, and changes in management needs. Multiple approaches are likely if the goal is to reach all the necessary parties and to be relevant to changing condition over time. In documenting these experiences, the authors link their observations to concepts, labels, and the theory of social learning to further advance our general understanding of multi-stakeholder processes in forest management.




The Invisible Wand: Adaptive Co-management as an Emergent Strategy in Complex Bio-economic Systems

Ruitenbeek J, Cartier C. 2001 [May]

This paper provides an economic perspective on concepts related to adaptive co-management (ACM). The discussion is cast within a formal generalized complex systems (CS) framework.

We explicitly explore the hypothesis of whether ACM can be regarded as an emergent strategy under specific conditions. The conditions draw a corollary from the well-known work of Adam Smith that describes "self-interest" as a forcing factor (the "invisible hand") that leads to stability and efficiency in economic systems. In our construct of a complex bio-economic system, we postulate that an "altruistic common interest" can act as a forcing factor (our "Invisible Wand") that leads to certain dominant emergent strategies that promote long-term sustainability and human well-being. One such strategy, we hypothesize, is ACM. A key question is whether ACM is something that simply evolves naturally from within a system or whether it is in fact a legitimate policy intervention that can be imposed or introduced from the outside.


   


People Managing Forests: The Link Between Human Well Being and Sustainability*

A co-publication of Resources for the Future (RFF) and Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

Carol J. Pierce Colfer and Yvonne Byron, editors

Confusion and dismay are rampant among those concerned about human and environmental issues in the tropics - and with good reason. Forests are being degraded at apparently ever increasing rates; and human welfare in forested areas is at best remaining at a constant level, more often deteriorating. Many - researchers, environmentalists, policy-makers of various hues - are trying to address these problems in a variety of ways. This book represents the evolution of one cooperative effort to understand and develop mechanisms for dealing with these interrelated problems, and proposes some conclusions about how to improve our efforts in the future..

In our research we have asked ourselves this fundamental question: How can we create conditions that allow local people who live in and around forests to maintain the valued aspects of their own way of life and to prosper, while still protecting those forests on which they, and perhaps the rest of us, depend? To answer that question, we needed first to identify those conditions that contribute to the well-being of people living in forests and, more generally, to sustainable forest management (SFM). Satisfied that we had a good grasp of the most important conditions (see below), here we examine their relationship to sustainability. This examination is the central theme of this book. Central issues of concern include the identification and roles of relevant stakeholders (including gender and diversity issues in Section I and the relevance of a conservation ethic in Section II), security of intergenerational access to forest resources (Section III) and rights and responsibilities to manage forests cooperatively and equitably (Section IV).

table of contents
some chapters can be dowloaded (draft version)

 


Available from Resources for the Future

Which Way Forward?
People, Forests, and Policymaking in Indonesia

Carol J. Pierce Colfer
and Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo, editors


"On economic and social justice grounds, as well as for biodiversity conservation and environmental management, this is a rare and extremely useful analysis of forestry issues, given growing domestic and international concern over the status of Indonesia's forests."
- Larry Fisher, Cornell University

"An original contribution to understanding the obstacles and opportunities for achieving forest policy reform in Indonesia and elsewhere."
- Paul K. Gellert, Cornell University

Indonesia contains some of Asia's most biodiverse and threatened forests. The challenges result from both long-term management problems and the political, social, and economic turmoil of the past few years. The contributors to Which Way Forward? explore recent events in Indonesia, while focusing on what can be done differently to counter the destruction of forests due to asset-stripping, corruption, and the absence of government authority.

Contributors to the book include anthropologists, economists, foresters, geographers, human ecologists, and policy analysts. Their concerns include the effects of government policies on people living in forests, the impact of the economic crisis on small farmers, links between corporate debt and the forest sector, and the fires of the late 1990s. By analyzing the nation's dramatic circumstances, they hope to demonstrate how Indonesia as well as other developing countries might handle their challenges to protect biodiversity and other resources, meet human needs, and deal with political change. The book includes an afterword by Emil Salim, former Indonesian Minister of State for Population and the Environment and former president of the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme.

Audiencee

A copublication of Resources for the Future, the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), and the Institute for Southeast Asian Studies (ISEAS).

 

Carol J. Pierce Colfer is team leader of the CIFOR program on Local People, Devolution and Adaptive Collaborative Management of Forests and coeditor of People Managing Forests: The Links between Human Well-Being and Sustainability.

Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo is leader of CIFOR's Underlying Causes of Deforestation, Forest Degradation, and Changes in Human Welfare program.

table of contents
some chapters can be dowloaded (draft version)

 


'Wild logging': the rise and fall of logging networks and biodiversity conservation projects on Sumatra's rainforest frontier..
McCarthy, John F
CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 31, October 2000 in English

During 1999-2000, the illegal and unregulated logging of Indonesia's forests became the focus of critical attention. In 2000, as Indonesia's forests continued to rapidly recede, the problem had become so critical that, without serious changes, the World Bank and other foreign donors considered withdrawing entirely from forestry sector projects in Indonesia. While on a national scale the extent of the problem is now understood, insufficient attention has been paid to how this 'informal sector' operates at the district level. The paper is based on research carried out in the district of South Aceh (Aceh Selatan) during 1996-1999, before and during the crisis that marked the end of the Suharto era. Through considering the emergence of logging networks in this district, this paper examines the institutional arrangements associated with this phenomenon, explores how logging networks emerge, how they operate, and how they respond to economic and political changes as well as interventions by outside conservation agencies.




Criteria and Indicators of Sustainability in Community Managed Forest Landscapes
Bill Ritchie, Cynthia McDougall, Mandy Haggith, Nicolette Burford de Oliveira

This guide is intended to make a contribution to the larger efforts worldwide at improving forest management, human well-being, and the sustainability of natural resources. In order for it to do so, three important points should be noted by anyone intending to use the Guide::

  1. As with any such tool, everything in this guide needs to be considered in, and adapted to, the local context in which it is to be used. We consider it not a blueprint, but a springboard to appropriate action.

  2. Successful implementation of the approach suggested in this guide relies on adequate understanding of, commitment to, and skills in participatory approaches and processes. This does not mean that only professional participation practitioners should use it. It means rather that if there is a lack of any or all of these, this gap should be addressed prior to and during the C&I processes (for example, through the readings or contacts suggested in the reference section).

    Furthermore, in relation to point 1 above, as the approach to CMF C&I and processes for monitoring are adapted for use locally, it is extremely important that these adaptations build in and maximize opportunities for shared learning and ownership of the processes. For example, while the guide may offer some ideas for structuring CMF C&I, it does not go in depth into the kinds of participatory tools that can be best used in different groups to do this. We look to the implementers of the guide to bring in the participatory tools and adaptations that will be needed in each context. We anticipate that across all contexts, this will include such adaptations as:

    - Locally appropriate games to introduce ideass
    - Shifting from written word to pictorial representations or other activities as literacy levels dictate
    - Developing strategies to overcome barriers to participation (such as gender, caste, etc)

  3. This is a work in progress! CIFOR and collaborators are continuing work in this area, and we would welcome input and feedback on this guide.



Self-Governance and Forest Resources.
Ostrom E
CIFOR Occasional Paper No. 20, February 1999

Forest resources share attributes with many other resource systems that make difficult their governance and management in a sustainable, efficient and equitable manner. Destruction or degradation of forest resources is most likely to occur in open-access forests where those involved, or external authorities, have not established effective governance. Conventional theories applied to forest resources presumed that forest users themselves were incapable of organising to overcome the temptations to overharvest. Extensive empirical research, however, has challenged this theory and illustrated the many ways that forest users themselves have devised rules that regulate harvesting patterns so as to ensure the sustainability of forest resources over time.




Abstracts for Proposed Special IJARGE Issue on Accommodating Multiple Interests in Community-Based Forest Management



A Strategic Approach to Multistakeholder Negotiations
David Edmunds and Eva Wollenberg
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR)

Environment and development practitioners increasingly are interested in identifying methods, institutional arrangements and policy environments that promote negotiations among natural resource stakeholders leading to collective action and, it is hoped, sustainable resource management. Yet the implications of negotiations for disadvantaged groups of people rarely are critically examined. We draw attention to such implications by examining different theoretical foundations for multistakeholder negotiations and linking these to practical problems for disadvantaged groups. We argue that negotiations based on theories of communicative rationality and liberal pluralism, which underplay or seek to neutralize differences among stakeholders, pose considerable risks for disadvantaged groups. We suggest that negotiations rooted in the work of radical pluralists and feminist post-structuralists, which take empowerment as a specific goal and emphasize strategic behavior and selective alliance-building, promise better outcomes for disadvantaged groups in most cases, particularly at the scales and in the historical contexts in which negotiations over forest management usually take place.




Forest Devolution and Social Capital - State-Civil Society Relations in the Philippines
Fransisco A. Magno

This paper aims to understand how different stakeholders affect authority structures in the forest zones. It describes the general pattern of distribution of power among the state and forest-dependent communities by taking into account the constant interplay of forces which cross the public-private divide. The study analyzes the extent to which local communities, with the support of civil society organizations, are able to expand their opportunities to decide the fate of forests under contemporary laws and policies..




Tenure and Management of Non-State Forests in China since 1950 - A Historical Review
Liu Dachang
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia

This article presents a historical review of the tenure arrangements of non-state forest in China since 1950. It links these tenure arrangements to different forest management practices and methods. Where possible, the article also touches on the impacts of these tenure policies on the distribution of decision-making authority and benefits, resource growth or depletion, and incentives for investment in forests.




The Prehistory of Community Forestry
Ramachandra Guha
Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor, Indonesia

The history of state forestry has indeed been a history of social conflict. On the one side are the professional foresters who believe that timber production can be ensured only through the exclusion of humans and their animals from wooded areas; on the other, the peasants, pastoralists, charcoal ironmakers, basketweavers and other such groups for whom access to forests and forest resources is crucial to economic survival. To the criticisms of these latter groups have now been added the criticisms of environmentalists, who charge foresters with simplifying complex ecosytems in the direction of commercially valuable but biologically impoverished monocultures.




Changing Policies and the Persistence of Patron - Client Relations - An Analysis of Stakeholders' Responses to Changes in Forest Policies
Y.B. Malla

In 1978, following two decades in which all forest resources were nationalised, the government of Nepal in 1978 introduced a policy for community forestry that promised to hand over most accessible forests to communities for protection and management (HMGN, 1989). Some recent assessments of the impact of community forestry policy implementation have shown mixed results. I would suggest that the limited and, in some places, negative impact of community forestry policy in Nepal can be explained by looking at the relationships among different individuals, groups of people and organisations and institutions, generally referred to in this paper as stakeholders, who have interests in forest resources.



 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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